Military recommendations to prevent cold-weather injuries.
Weather, state of the atmosphere at a given time and place with regard to temperature,
air pressure (see barometer), wind, humidity, cloudiness, and precipitation.
The term weather is restricted to conditions over short periods of time;
conditions over long periods, generally at least 30–50 years, are referred to as climate.
The earliest evidence of scientific activity in the field of meteorology, the study of the earth's atmosphere, especially as it relates to weather forecasting, is from the 4th century B.C. Aristotle wrote what is probably the first treatise on the subject. The first attempt to chart weather from reports over a considerable area was made (1820) in Europe by H. W. Brandes, but it was not until after the invention of the telegraph that the rapid collection of weather data from remote stations became possible.
Cold, arctic, chilly, cool, frigid, frosty, gelid, glacial, icy. These adjectives mean marked by a low or an extremely low temperature: cold air; an arctic climate; a chilly day; cool water; a frigid room; a frosty morning; gelid seas; glacial winds; icy hands.
Wet-cold conditions occur where variations in day and night temperatures cause alternate freezing and thawing. These conditions are often accompanied by wet snow and rain causing the ground to become slushy and muddy. Wet cold requires clothing with a waterproof or water-repellent, wind- resistant outer layer, and an insulated inner layer sufficient for moderately cold weather of 14°F and above. Waterproof footwear is essential.
Dry-cold conditions occur when average temperatures are lower than 14° F. The ground is usually frozen and the snow dry. These low temperatures and wind increase the need to protect the entire body. Dry cold requires layered clothing that insulates against a wind-chill. The inner layers of insulation must be protected by a water-repellent, wind-resistant outer layer.
Intense cold air temperatures ( -5 to -25°F) are in the range where materials begin to change, adversely affecting operations. Fuels gel, back blast areas triple, artillery fires drop 100 per 1000 meters, water in containers freezes quickly. Appropriate protective clothing is required.
Extreme cold (below -25° F) inhibits full-scale combat. Special fuels and lubricants are required, rubber becomes stiff and brittle, and close tolerances are affected. Operator personnel must have special protection from the elements.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COLD WEATHER INJURIES (CWI)
Wind Chill Factor
Type of Mission
Alcohol, Drugs, Tobacco
Sharp Changes in Weather
PREVENTION OF COLD WEATHER INJURIES
Proper Use of Gloves/Headgear
Hypothermia is when your body’s heat loss exceeds the rate that your body can produce it. Your body can produce only a limited amount of heat to keep yourself warm. When your body is producing as much heat as it can and your body temperature is still lowering, you are suffering from hypothermia. Hypothermia can occur no matter what the temperature is. It is important to know the symptoms and treatment for hypothermia.
|CAUSES: Heat loss exceeds heat production|
Radiation--heat like light
Conduction--sitting on cold surface--handling cold objects
Respiration--breathing cold air
Feeling of deep/cold numbness
Blueness of skin
Slow, weak, irregular pulse
Retreat inward psychologically
Immediately raise body temperature
Shelter from wind and weather
Insulate from ground
Replace wet clothing with dry
Increase exercise if possible
Give hot drinks and food
Get in warm sleeping bag
Shared body warmth
Hot packs/hand warmers under armpits and groin area
Cause: Not consuming as much water as the body uses
|Symptoms of normal dehydration:|
Poor skin tugor
Dryness of mouth and throat
dehydration can lead to total body core cooling.
|Cause:||Exposure to wet and cold around freezing|
|Symptoms:||Feet and toes are pale and numb, cold, and stiff|
|NOTE:||If preventive action not taken at this stage feet will swell and become painful!|
|Treatment:||Do NOT rub or massage|
|Clean carefully with soap and water if indoors
Dry, elevate, and expose to room temperature
Stay off feet and replace socks
|Cause:||Prolonged immersion in cold water < 50 F or in wet footwear > 12 hours. Aching and stinging pain on prolonged exposure. Initially no unusual|
|Symptoms:||Sensations of pain. Shin becomes shriveled and soft.|
|NOTE:||Handle gently--same as trench foot.|
Cause: Freezing of skin or tissues due to exposure to temperatures at or below freezing.
Commonly by exposure to liquids
freeze at low temperatures such as gasoline, cleaning solvents, and salt
or high velocity wind flow or metal surfaces.
EXPOSURE CAN OCCUR IN MINUTES!
Wind or contact with wet clothing may produce an effective temp in freezing range when air temperature is above freezing.
|SYMPTOMS:||First degree:||Aching, tingling sensation with cold and numbness. Skin usually turns red.|
|Second degree:||Pale grey and waxy white.|
|Third degree:||Black--no feeling no blood flow|
|TREATMENT:||Handle gently--same as trench foot. DO NOT use water to warm affected areas.|
|CHEEKS:||Cover with warm hands until pain returns|
|FINGERS:||Place uncovered under arm pits or belly next to skin.|
|FEET:||Bare feet against belly of companion, under clothing avoid rubbing or massaging. Don’t pop blisters!|
|CLOTHING:||DRY, and proper for weather.|
|EXERCISE:||Routine exercise of face, fingers, and toes.|
Cold weather accidents are preventable this winter and every winter.